We meet this couple in other letters of Paul. 2. Three women are listed in Romans 16:12. 13Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother, who has been a mother to me, too. In these first 24 verses there are 33 names mentioned. In recent years, it’s been popular to say that the church has oppressed women, that it has little place for them, and even that the Apostle Paul was a woman-hater. But it is very clear from this mention here that there were Christians among his household. That was part of my devotional scripture reading this morning and since I have been long-intrigued by it and have wanted to distinguish the names by gender, I decided to take time to Google it as a question I have needed to ask for a long time. She had travelled to Rome where one of her tasks was to deliver Paul’s letter. I’ve already shared my information on authentein. In fact, for 300 years there is no mention of church buildings in Scripture. I have also seen that the idea of it meaning seizing authority being criticized on the grounds that the prohibition is not about usurping the authority of a teacher, but any man. Plus he relies on older lexicons of the NT that did not have the advantage of new discoveries of ancient Greek afforded by the discoveries of thousands of ancient papyri in the late 1800s and early 1900s. There are two households mentioned, and two unnamed women -- the mother of Rufus and the sister of Nereus -- as well as some unnamed brethren. a. I commend to you Phoebe our sister: Paul certainly knew the value of what women could do in serving the church. Apelles is a man whose faith in Christ had been tested in some way, and proven. The word is the same for male or female.) I cannot see that 1 Cor. His comment about Chrysostom’s use of authent– words almost made me tear out my hair. CEB. Thank you for your thorough analysis of Romans 16. Five families or houses are mentioned. . A sixth Mary in the Bible is mentioned as a member of the church at Rome. That is a sexist term. There is an Alexander who comes to the rescue of Paul in the city of Ephesus, at the time of the outcry there. In this case, the first mention of Mary in the Bible would be Miriam, the sister of Moses, in Exodus. If no one can see a man or woman praying and prophesying then what does it matter how they wear their hair, or if their head is covered or uncovered? I am sure that if they had known that mention in one of Paul's letters was to give them undying fame, there would have been a long line of people outside his door urging him to include them in the letter. Further, Paul had not visited the church or churches in Rome, but he seems to have known many of the saints there very well.… Phoebe is described as a diakonos of the church at Cenchrea, but some insist she was not a minister but a servant. Günther Bornkamn, Paul (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995) 80; Joan Cecelia Campbell, Phoebe: Patron and Emissary (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2009), 13-14; Robert Jewett, “Paul, Phoebe, and the Spanish Mission” in The Social World of Formative Christianity and Judaism: In Tribute to Howard Clark Kee (Philadelphia: FortressPress, 1988), 153-154; Susan Mathew, Women in the Greetings of Rom 16:1-16: A Study of Mutuality and Women’s Ministry in the Letter to the Romans (Durham University: Durham E-Theses, 2010), 4-19. The family of Stephanas were the first converts of Achaia ( 1 Cor. 14:34-35 does make a distinction between a church meeting and a wife asking her husband a question or two in the privacy of their own home. No matter how many others follow, you never forget the firstfruits. Paul spoke of him always in the highest terms; his beloved son in the faith, who had stayed with him so long and remained faithful to the end. But they were not compiled until later, and they were not regarded as scripture until later. 11:2) by using the verb for “praise.”. It might help a bit to look at some of the women mentioned in the New Testament. T.C. And since most of the Christians were Jewish, they would have heard the scriptures read in synagogues that owned some scrolls. More about Mary of Rome and Paul’s use of “labour” terminology here. All the churches of Christ send greetings. 14:23 specifies “the whole church” (i.e. In the cemetery at Domitilla, found among the catacombs in Rome, there is a highly decorated tomb with the single name "Ampliatus," written on it. And yet, they who did not have to work for a livelihood worked hard in the service of the Lord. The same verb occurs five times in the second half of 1 Cor. This man will forever be known as one who endured a testing of his faith and who stood against the pressure. I think this passage reminds us that God has called us all to a ministry, and we all have to give an account for what we have done with our gifts. Sosipater may be the man from Beroea, mentioned in Acts 20 as "Sopater." 11:2-16. Some were Christians before him, but some Paul influenced toward Christ. Rufus’s mother Romans 16:13, Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord; and greet his mother—a mother to me also. She did not teach Adam and she did not exercise authority or power over him.). We see them first in Chapter 18 of Acts, where Luke tells us they were Jews, tentmakers by trade, who were driven out of Rome by the decree of the Emperor Claudius. the Joanna mentioned as a wealthy patron and follower of Jesus in Luke 8:3 and 24:10 may be identical to Junia, with Joanna being her Aramaic name and Junia its Greek/Latin equivalent.3 Whatever her identity, Paul’s deference to her authority illustrates the utmost respect on his part. Mary Magdalene told Jesus’s disciples the good news that Jesus has risen from the dead, but some insist she was not preaching. Does this mean that these people were fellow Israelites, related to each other as all Jews are, or is Paul indicating an even closer kinship? 14:1-15:6), and the women and slaves or former slaves we have met in Romans 16:1-15. Nereus Romans 16:15 A shepherd who only feeds the male sheep in his flock? Very interesting Marg. It is this group, probably, that Paul is referring to. In these early days, Christians did not meet in buildings like we have now. Greet Mary, who laboured hard for you. As I was reading in the latter half of Romans, reaching the end of the book brought about an interesting chapter. In these first 24 verses there are 33 names mentioned. Galatians 3:28: Our Identity in Christ and in the Church But that is how I see it too: “she will be saved through childbearing if they [husband and wife?] Partnering Together: Paul’s Female Coworkers. Several books and papers discuss whether Romans 16 was meant for Rome or for Ephesus. Five names are given in verse 14. This young man had lived up to his name, ... Several people by the name of Gaius are mentioned … In addition, it was mentioned that I Corinthians 11:2-16 may have been about a small, informal gathering of believers to pray or meet, and I Corinthians 14:33- 35 is about speech in the public church gathering for teaching and preaching. Men and women who were tested, tried, and approved, who stayed steadfast in the long martyrdom of life itself. In the Gospels we are told that as our Lord was making his way down the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, on his way to the cross, he was so weak from loss of blood that he tripped and fell. . One obvious feature was the many women mentioned. I’m terrible with numbers. The first fruits of Achaia. Subject to permissions policy, all rights reserved. When you obey this, God will work. Hi Bill, Your comment has warmed my heart. 6-16. In Verse 13 we have Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother, who had been a mother to the apostle too. Here in Romans 16 are six members of Paul's family, kinsmen who are now Christians. The people Paul greets are male and female, young and old, Jew and Gentile, slave and free. He is not mentioned elsewhere. These are numbers worth remembering. In Verses 21-23 we have the greetings of those who are with Paul in Corinth: Timothy, my fellow worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my relatives.I, Tertius, who wrote down this letter, greet you in the Lord. Say hello to Urbanus, our coworker in Christ . Rom. Romans 16 – Greetings to the Christians in Rome A. Greetings to many different Christians. Paul refers to her both as a "servant" or "deacon" (Greek diakonos) and as a helper or patron of many (Greek prostatis). Authentein was not a good thing. Greet Mary. (His palm had to be greased before a letter got through to the emperor.) 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